Franz Joseph Hayden (1732-1809)
Tonight's Composers
Program notes: April 30, 2016

The program notes for tonight’s concert are abstracted from the following sources:  /wiki/Joseph_Haydn; /The_Creation_(Haydn)#Part_I;  https://en /wiki/Fidelio; and_Events/Program_Notes/060210_ProgramNotes _Beethoven_FidelioOverture.pdf; Schubert, the music and the man, Brian Newbould, University of California Press, 456 pages, 1997.; /symphony_no_6.html; Events/Program_Notes/ProgramNotes _Muti_Conducts_Schubert.pdf;  http://www.orsympho programnotes/cl11.aspx;  http:// http://www.allmusic. com/composition/pizzicato-polka-for-orchestra-op-234-mc0002362796; http://www. .asp?item_code=8.223246&catNum=223246&filetype=About%20t his%20 Recording&language=English; https://muso;; https://www.phil files/concert/pdfs/New%20Year's%20Eve_1.pdf; http://www.guelph; http://www.ontario; /wiki/Franz Leh% C3%A1r; /wiki/Hungarian_Dances_(Brahms);; http://phil; https://en.; http://; 7/s_118/p_752/Program _Notes_-_Haydn's_Bicentennial/;  http://3puuzj
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Franz Schubert (1797-1828)
Johannes Brahms (1833-1897)
Ludwig van Beethhoven (1770-1827)
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)

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Fidelio Overture Op. 72 (Ludwig van Beethoven 1770-1827): Fidelio (originally named Leonore, or The Triumph of Marital Love), was Ludwig van Beethoven’s only opera. Although the opera was first performed in 1805, Beethoven struggled with the overture and ultimately created four versions. Leonore No. 1, written for an 1808 production to open in Prague, was discovered after Beethoven's death and mistakenly thought to be his earliest effort. The 1805 original overture then became known as Leonore No. 2. In 1806 Beethoven revised Leonore No. 2 to create Leonore No. 3, which was an intensely dramatic full-scale symphonic movement that overwhelmed the opera’s light initial scenes. In 1814 Beethoven produced Fidelio (Leonore No. 4) which was first performed on May 23. In this final attempt, Beethoven wrote music that was shorter and lighter than any of the previous overtures and that fit in with the opera’s first number. Fidelio may be less important as stand-alone music, but it was perfect stagecraft.

Prelude from The Creation (Franz Joseph Hayden 1732-1809): Hayden wrote The Creation between 1797 and 1798 and it is considered by many to be his masterpiece. The oratorio depicts and celebrates the creation of the world as described in the Book of Genesis and Paradise Lost. The Butte Symphony will present Creation’s overture, The Representation of Chaos; in which Hayden used stark chords and shifting harmony to portray formlessness and disorder. At the time of its first performance in 1799, The Representation of Chaos must have struck audiences as daring, sinister, and unpredictable.

Scherzo from Serenade No. 1 (Johannes Brahms 1833-1897):
Serenade No 1, Op. 11 was one of Johannes Brahms’ earliest efforts to write orchestral music. Completed in 1858 and originally scored for wind and string octet, it was soon lengthened and arranged for chamber nonet. Brahms adapted it for large orchestra in December 1859. The first performance, in Hamburg on March 3, 1860 "did not go very well" in Brahms' opinion, but applause "persisted until I came out and down in front."

The Serenade has six movements: Allegro Molto (D Major); Scherzo Allegro no troppo (D minor) with a Trio Poco piû moto (B-flat major); Adagio non troppo (B-flat major); Menuetto I (G major) and Menuetto II (G minor); Scherzo Allegro (D major) with a Trio; and Rondo Allegro (D major). The Butte Symphony will play the Scherzo Allegro in D major which full of Brahms’ respect for Beethoven.

Adagio from Gran Partita (Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 1756-1791)
Serenade in B flat K361. Serenades were music for entertainment, functional, designed to serve as background music, and not meant to explore emotional depths or sophisticated composition. Mozart wrote his first Serenade at the age of thirteen, but after he moved to Vienna in 1781 he only wrote them occasionally. The Serenade in B flat (Gran Partita) was a product of his Vienna years. Scored for two oboes, two clarinets, two basset horns (lower-pitched clarinets), four horns, two bassoons, and double bass the instrumentation was well-suited for outdoor performance.

The Serenade in B flat consists of seven movements: (I) Sonata; (II) Menuetto with two trios; (III) Adagio; (IV) Menuetto; (V) Romance; (VI) a theme with six variations, and (VII) Finale. Movement III is the centerpiece. This Adagio conveys atmospheric beauty and unique colors through Mozart’s use of clarinet, basset horn, and oboe solos within a rhythmic accompaniment.

Symphony No. 6 - Movement III Scherzo (Franz Schubert 1797-1828):
Schubert’s 6th symphony, the Little C Major (D 589) was likely first performed in Vienna in 1818 by an amateur orchestra. Its first public performance was in 1828 at a concert commemorating its composer, who had died a few weeks earlier. Not one of Schubert’s symphonies was publicly known during his lifetime; most were not published until the end of the 19th century, more than 50 years after his death. The 6th symphony’s third movement, the first in Schubert’s production to be labeled a Scherzo, resembles Beethoven’s music in its power and thrust.

Hungarian Dance No. 6 (Johannes Brahms 1833-1897): The Hungarian Dances are a set of 21 lively dance tunes based mostly on Hungarian themes completed in 1869. The dances are among Brahms's most popular works and last from about one to four minutes each. Brahms originally wrote them for piano in four hands and later arranged the first 10 for solo piano. Since their introduction, each dance has been arranged for a wide variety of instruments and ensembles.

Overture in D Major (Franz Schubert 1797-1828):
This work from 1812 (D 26), when Schubert was 15 years old, was one of the eight overtures he wrote before 1819. This period marked Schubert’s “apprenticeship” as he experimented with the large-scale instrumental form. In western European music of the 18th and 19th centuries, most works began and ended in the tonic key and modulated to the dominant in the middle sections. Conversely, the Overture in D Major never modulates. Schubert’s overtures are rewarding viewpoints into his thoughts as he worked towards mastering the symphonic form, ultimately presented in his “Great” Symphony No. 9 in C major (D 944).

Pizzicato Polka (Johann Strauss Jr. 1825-1899): F.A. Zimmerman, who played viola with the Strauss Orchestra, recorded nine performances of Pizzicato Polka when it was premiered on June 24, 1869. On July 6 it was played seven times during a benefit concert. Josef Strauss conducted its Viennese premiere on November 14, 1869. The polka was jointly composed by Johann Strauss in collaboration with his brother Josef. The music was originally scored for strings and glockenspiel and, as the title suggests, featured pizzicato strings throughout. Tonight, the Butte Symphony Orchestra will play an arrangement of Pizzicato Polka published by Carl Fischer (Copyright 1889) for full orchestra. There is no score, but the first violin part lists J. Strauss as composer and is marked “Revised Edition”. This revision includes bowed parts in the Trio and Coda for the strings.

Gold and Silver Waltz (Franz Lehár 1870-1948): Franz Lehár composed 38 operettas for the Vienna stage including the popular Merry Widow which premiered in 1905. In 1901, while the bandmaster for the 26th Regiment in Vienna, Lehár was asked by the Princess Pauline von Metternich to compose something fine for her “Gold and Silver” ball on January 2, 1902. Although Gold and Silver would eventually achieve international fame, it seemed to make little impression on the crowd when premiered. In Gold and Silver Lehár evokes a sense of nostalgia mixed with celebration.

Radetsky March (Johann Strauss Sr. 1804-1849):
Johann Strauss Sr. composed Radetsky March in honor of Field Marshal Joseph Radesky von Radez to commemorate his victory at the Battle of Custoza of 1848 (During the first Italian War of Independence). Despite its martial background, the music is more celebratory than military and seems more suited for the dance floor than the battlefield. It consists of an introduction followed by six musical figures, each of which is repeated and mixed with the next. When the chorus was first played for the Austrian army, the officers clapped and stomped their feet. This tradition continues in many venues as audiences clap rhythmically and softly during the first time the melody is heard, and then thunderously the second time. The Radetzky March may be Johann Strauss Senior's most enduring legacy.
Johannes Strauss Sr. (1804-1849)
Johannes Strauss Jr. (1825-1899)
Franz Lehár (1870-1948)
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