Hector Berloiz (1803-1869)
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Canzona Septimi Toni a 8 from Sacrae Symphoniae 1597 (Giovanni Gabrieli, 1554/1557-1612): Giovanni Gabrieli was born in Venice, Italy sometime between 1554 and 1557. By 1585, Gabrieli was principal organist at Saint Mark's Basilica. He also was organist at the prestigious Venetian confraternity Scuola Grande di San Rocco which was second only to San Marco in the splendor of its facilities.

Two of Giovanni’s most important publications were his Sacrae symphoniae of 1597 and 1615. Both contained purely instrumental music for church use, or massive choral and instrumental motets for the liturgy. Gabrieli was one of the first to specify which instruments were to be used, as well as to distinguish their musical style; thus initiating a completely new approach to musical color and orchestration. He was also one of the first to specify dynamics by specifying loud and soft sections in the Sonata pian e forte for eight instruments. Before the mid-16th century, instrumentation and dynamics depended little on the composer’s preferences, but more on which instruments and performers were available. The Canzon septimi toni (written in the Mixolydian mode, the "seventh tone") shows Gabrieli’s development of musical material during dialogue between separated instrumental groups.
Giovanni Gabrielli
(1554/1557-1612)
Edward Elgar (1857-1934)
Tonight's Composers
Program notes: September 27, 2014

Program notes for tonight’s concert are abstracted from the following sources: http://www.britannica.com/ EBchecked/ topic/223235/Giovanni-Gabrieli, http://www. britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/645041/wind-instrument /53824/The-Baroque-period#ref131288,  http://www. laphil.com/philpedia/music/canzon-septimi-toni-no-2-giovanni-gabrieli, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giovanni _Gabrieli,  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Les_nuits_d%27%C3%A9t%C3%A9, http://www.laphil.com/philpedia /music/les- nuits-dete-hector-berlioz, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chanson_de_Nuit, http://www.elgar.org /3chanson.htm, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siete_canciones_populares_espa%C3%B1olas, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuel_de_Falla, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Songs_Without_Words, https://www.lucksmusic.com/catdetailview_symph.asp? CatalogNo=05653, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosamunde, http://bhco.co.uk/pages/node/314)
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Les Nuits d’et (Hector Berlioz, 1803-1869): Les nuits d'été (Summer Nights), Op. 7, is a song cycle completed in 1841 by the French composer Hector Berlioz based on six poems by Théophile Gautier. Berlioz found it difficult to decide on their order, but finally settled on (1) Villanelle; (2) Le spectre de la rose; (3) Sur les lagunes; (4) Absence; (5) Au cimetière; and (6) L'île inconnue.

John Mangum, Orchestra Program Designer/Annotator for the Los Angeles Philharmonic commented in a May 2012 program that: “The songs consider love from different angles, but loss of love permeates them all. When performed as a cycle, the songs convey this loss all the more strongly, not just as individual compositions touched by melancholy, but as a coherent conception, one where the longed-for "always" of the first song, Villanelle, becomes unattainable in the last one, L'île inconnue. Berlioz' rapturous, idealistic love for his first wife, Harriet Smithson, had faded - the breeze had blown his ship on a course far from one leading to the "always" of his youthful dreams.”
Cinq romances sans paroles (Felix Mendelssohn, 1809-1847; arr. P. and L. Hillemacher): Mendelssohn wrote eight volumes of music in the early nineteenth century to address the piano’s increasing popularity in middle-class households. Each volume contained six songs written to be played by pianists of varying skill. Paul Hillemacher arranged five of Mendelssohn’s “songs” for orchestra from four of the books: Allegro di Molto (Lé Depart) - Opus 30, no. 2, 1833-1834; Allegretto tranquillo (Le Gondolier) - Opus 30, no. 6, 1833-1834; Presto (Scherzetto) - Opus 102, no. 3, 1842-1845; Andante maestoso (Marche Funébre) - Opus 62, no. 3, 1842-1844; and Molto Allegro (La Chasse) - Opus 19, no. 3, 1829-1830. The orchestra will play Lé Depart, Marche Funébre, and Scherzetto.

Chanson de nuit (Edward Elgar, 1857-1934): In October 1897 Edward Elgar published Chanson de Nuit, a short piece that became a companion to the later Chanson de Matin. Although the Chanson de Matin is far the more widely known, the Chanson de Nuit is in many ways constructed more carefully. “de Nuit” was originally written for piano with solo violin, but Elgar also scored it for a small orchestra of one flute, one oboe, two clarinets, one bassoon, two horns, the string section, and a harp. Elgar may have regarded the quickly-composed piece as little more than an “easy” way of earning much needed funds, but it portrays a depth of emotion not commonly found in “pot boilers” then or since.
Manuel de Falla (1876-1946)
Siete Canciones populares españolas  (Manuel de Falla, 1876-1946): Manuel de Falla y Matheu (November 23, 1876 - November 14, 1946) was a Spanish composer and one of Spain's most important musicians during the first half of the 20th century along with Isaac Albéniz and Enrique Granados. Falla wrote Siete canciones populares españolas ("Seven Spanish Folksongs") in 1914 and the piece has become one of the best known and frequently performed sets of Spanish-language art songs. During the early 1970s Spain honored Falla’s memory by publishing 100-peseta banknotes that portrayed his image.
Rosamunde Overture (Franz Schubert, 1797-1828) Schubert wrote incidental music for many plays, including that for Rosamunde, Fürstin von Zypern (Rosamunde, Princess of Cyprus) in 1823. The overture Schubert actually used for Rosamunde was originally written for his opera, Alfonso und Estrella. The music that we now know as the Overture to Rosamunde was actually commissioned for the August 1820 production of Die Zauberharfe (The Magic Harp) which was poorly received and quickly closed. Schubert was disappointed that critics didn’t even mention the overture.

Seven years later, Zauberharfe’s overture was saved from obscurity by a publisher who mistakenly printed it with the incidental music for Rosamunde. In this way, one of Schubert’s finest orchestral works eventually became popular, even if under the wrong name.

After a dark and brooding introduction, an energetic first theme is followed by one of Schubert’s most beautiful, simple, and lyrical melodies.
Felix Mendelssohn (1803-1869)
Franz Schubert (1797-1828)
2014 - 2015 Archived Notes
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